The Institute of Vegetable Crops successfully cultivated the first hybrid varieties of tomato, pepper and eggplant in China,as well as the first watermelon hybrid with high resistance to Fusarium wilt in China.
The Institute is now comprised of 11 research teams respectively engaged in pepper, watermelon and melons, tomato, eggplant, Chinese cabbage, cabbage, melon vegetables, vegetable cultivation techniques, balcony vegetable gardening and edible fungi. The Institute carries out research on breeding and cultivation techniques as well as technical extension of more than 20 kinds of vegetables.
Our research lab for melon crops is mainly engaged in the germplasm development, new-varieties breeding and matching technological researches concerning watermelon, muskmelon, luffa and melon rootstock. In terms of the genetic breeding of watermelon, muskmelon and luffa, it is one of the earliest domestic institutes to carry out relevant researches. In particular, its researches in watermelon disease-resisting breeding, "Eastward Migration" of thick-skinned muskmelon, heterosis utilization of luffa have a high academic status in China. The studies in disease-resisting mechanism of rootstocks have exerted some domestic influence. A series of melon varieties, such as "Su Mi", "Su Tian", "Jiang Shu", have been widely applied in production and enjoys a high market reputation.
Now, our research lab for melon crops undertakes the rootstock breeding post for muskmelon industry technology system of national modern agriculture, the functions as the Integration and Innovation Center for muskmelon industry technology system of Jiangsu modern agriculture, the sub-projects of national key R&D plan, as well as the general projects for the Youth Science Fund of National Natural Science Foundation and Jiangsu Natural Science Foundation. In recent years, emphasis has been put on the selective breeding of special varieties for high quality facilities. The high-quality early-maturing watermelon varieties including “Sumi No. 8” and “Sumi Seedless No. 2”, the high-quality muskmelon varieties including “Sutian No. 2” and “Sutian No. 4”, as well as the luffa varieties including “Susi No. 3”, have been successfully bred. “The High-quality, Green and Simplified Cultivation Technology for Facility Muskmelons” has been listed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs as a major promoted agricultural technology in 2017 and 2018. Since the 11th five-year plan, our research lab for melon crops has won one first-prize of Jiangsu Agricultural Science & Technology Promotion Award, three third-prizes of Jiangsu Provincial Science & Technology Award, two third -prizes of Nanjing Science & Technology Progress Award, and one second-prize of Jiangsu Provincial Harvest Award.
Pakchoi is the main vegetable widely cultivated and supplied in China. The occurrence of diseases, the disastrous climate of extreme heat in summer and low temperature in winter usually cause the decline in the yield and quality. Our team mainly focuses on the innovation of excellent germplasm resources by using field tests combined with the high-efficient biotechnology, such as microspore culture, molecular marker assistant selection, gene editing technology, male sterility breeding technology. We are also very interested in breeding of balsam pear, especially in early mature, disease resistance and cold/heat tolerance. A series of new pakchoi and balsam pear cultivars with multi resistance, high quality and high yield are bred and released to the production.
The research lab for vegetable cultivation engages in the studies on vegetable cultivation technologies and related applications. It mainly focuses on the researches in vegetable facility structure, vegetable facility cultivation, soilless cultivation technique as well as related physiological and molecular mechanism. Meanwhile, it carries out the researches and explorations on the planning, design and development strategies for modern agricultural parks, cultivate the master and post-doctoral talents in vegetable cultivation, and popularize new facilities and techniques for vegetable cultivation. It ranks top among the same fields at home. At present, there are 10 staff in the research lab, including 4 doctors and 4 masters in the team; 8 scientific and technological innovation posts, 1 worker and 1 assistant. Dr. Xu Gang, an expert on the configuration of technical system facilities of modern agricultural vegetable industry in Jiangsu Province and a third-level professor, works as the director of this research lab.
The research lab for vegetable cultivation has always focused on the optimization of vegetable facility configuration in Jianghuai Region and the development of new facilities. Breakthroughs have been made in the optimization theory and construction technology for solar greenhouse and net room structures. The solar greenhouse and insect control net room suitable for Jianghuai Region have been developed and stereotyped, and provincial standards have been formulated, which provides key technical supports for the upgrading and modernization of vegetable facilities in Jianghuai Region.
The cultivation and management expert system for small watermelons, tomatoes and muskmelons in greenhouses based on the models is first developed in China, which combines the prediction function of simulation model for growth and development with the consulting function of expert system. In 2007, this system was awarded the third prize of Shennong China Agricultural Science and Technology Award by the Ministry of Agriculture.
Efficient and practical soilless cultivation technology based on new organic substrate of vegetables has been developed, corresponding provincial standards are formulated and two national invention patents are obtained. The full-nutrition culture substrate of vegetables is the first of its kind in China. The industrialization development of this achievement has promoted the demonstration and popularization of new soilless cultivation technology in the whole province.
Progress has been made in the study of high-efficient and accurate optical spectrum of vegetables. The effects of different proportions of LED spectrum and light intensity on the quality and yield of leaf and fruit vegetables are studied. Thus, the high-quality and super-high-yield soilless cultivation system of Chinese Cabbage and the super-high-yield soilless cultivation system of tomatoes based on LED are established.
The whole-process integration technology of industrialized seedling cultivation has been studied and developed, which has effectively improved the seedling cultivation capability and the application rate of industrialized seedlings in our province. The research achievements are leading in China and we are currently applying for the Shennong China Agricultural Science and Technology Award.
The research lab for vegetable cultivation has led the standard projects of Ministry of Agriculture, completed the DUS tests of characteristic vegetables such as crowndaisy chrysanthemum, water celery, auricularia, artemisia annua and mioga ginger, and formulated the industry standards for water celery and crowndaisy chrysanthemum (NY/T2506-2013、NY/T2507-2013).
It has led the projects of National Natural Science Foundation, studied on the molecular mechanism for the effect of weak light on the fruit expansion of watermelons, and identified the key metabolic pathways and genes for the effect of weak light on fruit expansion of watermelons.
The characteristics and laws of temperature and light distribution and variation in photovoltaic installations are first studied in China. Five new models for efficient cultivation of photovoltaic facility vegetables are developed.
More than 60 articles are published in SCI and other journals; 2 national agricultural industry standards and 4 provincial standards are formulated; 20 patents are obtained, among which 2 national invention patents are obtained for the full-nutrition culture substrate of vegetables. In addition, the research lab has taken in charge of more than 80 planning items for state-level and province-level modern agricultural industry parks.
1.Research Orientation of Facility Vegetable Cultivation
Currently, there are 6 research fellows, including 1 professor, 3 associate professors and 2 assistant professors. There are now 4 postgraduates being cultivated. This orientation mainly focuses on the researches in the optimization of vegetable facility configuration and the R&D of new-type facilities; the innovation, integrated demonstration and popularization of new techniques and modes for high-quality, high-yield and high-efficiency of facility vegetables; the planning and design of modern facility agricultural parks and modern agricultural industrial parks; the studies on environmental control of vegetable facilities and decision-making techniques for cultivation; the studies on soilless cultivation techniques, super-high-yield cultivation and related mechanism; the studies on stress mechanism and stress-resistant cultivation techniques of facility vegetables etc.
New techniques for soilless cultivation of facility vegetables in organic substrate
Expert management system for facility vegetables
Anti-seasonal facility cultivation of Chinese Cabbages
New-type solar greenhouse
2.Research Orientation of Pollution-free Vegetable Cultivation
There are currently 4 research fellows, including 1 professor, 2 assistant professors and 1 assistant. This orientation mainly focuses on the demonstration and popularization of such technologies as the environmental-friendly prevention and control of vegetable diseases and pests, organic cultivation of vegetables, cultivation of fast-growing leafy vegetables in summer, vegetable soil improvement, nutrient supply, and cultivation environment control.
High-quality and safe production of fast-growing leafy vegetables in greenhouse in summer and autumn
High-quality cultivation of vegetable in greenhouse
1. R&D of new-type vegetable facilities
2. Study on high-efficient & precise spectrum and LED soilless cultivation of vegetables
3. Study on stress mechanism and stress-resistant cultivation techniques of facility vegetables
The research team for edible fungi devotes itself to the breeding, cultivation, disease and pest control for edible fungi, which has exerted great influence in the edible fungi industry. It has successively undertaken more than 40 scientific research projects for the pest-control post in National Edible Fungi Industry Technology System, Jiangsu Agricultural Commission and Jiangsu Science & Technology Department, etc., including the introduction, breeding and demonstration of new edible-fungi varieties, the development of new substrates, the utilization and development of new matrixes and materials, the studies on industrialized cultivation techniques, the comprehensive disease and pest control for edible fungi, the formulation of standards for pollution-free edible fungi, the researches in product processing techniques as well as the technical promotion and consultation services concerning edible fungi.
1. Researches in the breeding technologies of oyster-cap fungus and rare edible medicinal bacteria;
2. Researches in the industrialized and simplified cultivation technologies;
3. Researches in the comprehensive disease and pest control methods for edible fungi.
The research team for edible fungi boasts 2 nationally-accredited varieties, namely, hericium erinaceus “Hou Za No. 19” and auricularia polytricha “Su Mao No.3”. It has published 10 monographs on edible fungi and more than 70 papers in domestic and foreign academic journals, obtained over 10 patents related to edible fungi, and formulated more than 10 provincial and local standards. In addition, it has for several times won Agricultural Technology Promotion Award at provincial and municipal levels, Scientific and Technological Progress Award, Agricultural Harvest Award, Industry-University-Institute Cooperation Award and Technological Invention Award etc.